星期一, 9月 24, 2018

驚爆十三天-古巴危機電視演說(約翰甘迺迪)

《從28篇經典演說學思考》第23篇[驚爆十三天」,甘迺迪「古巴飛彈危機」電視演說發表於一九六二年十月二十二日,演說中宣布美軍進入三級警備狀態。他派出兩百艘戰艦封鎖古巴,並獲得英、法、西德與加拿大四國政府的支持。讓蘇聯政府擔心美國會入侵古巴,釀成雙方爆發核戰。

一九五九年卡斯楚推翻巴蒂斯塔獨裁政府之後,美國政府採取經濟制裁,甚至支持反古巴政府的恐怖組織。終於在一九六一年四月十七日發生猪玀灣事件。當時甘迺迪總統上任不到九十天,被猪玀灣事件搞得灰頭土臉。

古巴飛彈危機始於一九六二年十月十四日,美U2偵察機確認古巴境內有蘇聯的SSー4飛彈裝有核子彈頭,足以擊美國所有重要城巿。於是雙方對峙情勢升高,核彈危機一鞋觸即發。

一九六二年十月廿七星期六上午是人類史上最接近核戰的一刻,因為美國海軍在一次晨間試驗中,對蘇聯核子潛艇投了一顆深水炸彈,讓俄國人覺得核戰己爆發,所以決定反擊。幸好祗有艦長、政委兩人同意。而大副並不同意發射化解危機。


同一時間,美國U2偵察機在古巴上空被擊落。美國總統決定不報復採取談判,成功壓制美國軍方開戰聲浪。最後在十月廿八日正式宣告結束十三天的危機。

Cuban Missile Criss Address to the Nation  Oct. 23. 1963
John F. Kennedy

I was to say a few words to the captive people of Cub, to Whom this speech is being directly carried y special radio facilities. I speak to you as a friend, as one who knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all.
    And I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed —and how your fatherland fell under foreign domination . Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals. They are puppets and acts of an iteration conspiracy which has turned it into the first Latin American country to become a target for nuclear war—-the first Latin American country to have thee weapons on its soil.
    These new weapons are to in your interest. They contribute nothing to your peace and wellbeing. They can only undermine any system non you. We know that your lives and lad are being used as pawns by those who deny your freedom Many times in the past, the Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrants who destroyed their liberty. And I have no doubt hat most Cubans today look forward to the time when they will be truly free—-free from foreign domination. free to choose their own leaders. free to select their own system, free to own thereon land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degradation. And then shall Cuba be welcomed bak to the society of tree nation and to the associations of this hemisphere.
     The path we chosen for the present is full of hazards, as all paths are, but fit is the one most consistent with our character and courage as a nation and your commitments around the world. The most of freedom is always high, but Americans have always paid it, And one path we shall never choose and that is Our goal is not the victory, but the vindication of right, not peace at the expense of freedom, our both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world. God willing , that goal will be achieved.

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