星期四, 9月 27, 2018

好事多磨的遺愛-阿弗雷德諾貝爾(#9/25)

「從28篇經典演說學思考」第九篇「好事多磨的遺愛」其實這篇文章不是演說,而是一份遺囑,它催生出人類史上最偉大的殊榮:諾貝爾奬的誔生。

這份文件的背後其實充滿爭議和法律陷阱,導致好事多磨,一直拖到阿弗雷德-諾目爾逝世五週年才實現。主要是它公布之後被瑞典各界人士批評為「不受國」。因為身為瑞典人,為什麼不把遺產捐贈給瑞典?最後在遺囑執行人索爾曼努力之下,於一八九八年五月宣布生效。

Alfred Nabels Will Nov. 27, 1895
Alfred Nobel

I after mature deliberation, declare the following to be my last Will and Testament with respect to such property as may be left by me at the time of my death:
    The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows:
    One part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery of improvement, one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology of medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one part to there person who shall have done he most or the best work for fraternity between nations., for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion for peace congresses.
    The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical work by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.

    It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates. But that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not.

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